Much has changed since the early days of bitcoin and blockchain. Despite their reputation for volatility and disruption, cryptocurrencies – built on distributed ledger technology – have continued to garner attention from investors, and have steadily gained a foothold across the world’s financial markets. Falling outside of current regulatory frameworks, many concerns remain, from cybersecurity and money-laundering risks to the environmental impact of ‘mining’ farms through energy consumption and emissions. assesses the latest developments as governments, regulators and market participants consider how best to respond to the threats and opportunities of this innovative technology.

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