BNP Paribas’s LCR hit record high in 2020 in wake of deposit glut

HQLA jumped 10% in Q4

BNP Paribas’s liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) surged eleven percentage points over the last three months of 2020 to 135%, its highest level on record, reflecting a late-year build-up of easy-to-sell assets to match ongoing deposit growth.

The bank’s rolling 12-month average of high-quality liquid assets (HQLA) –  which form the numerator of the LCR – hit €402.2 billion ($481.1 billion) at end-December, up 10% on end-September and 34% on a year prior. Net cash outflows, which make up the denominator, climbed 6% on the quarter and 17% on the year to €297.6 billion.

Wholesale deposits largely drove the spike in cash outflows. The LCR-weighted value of projected outflows from unsecured non-retail funding jumped €9.5 billion (4%) over Q4 and 12% over the year. These made up around half of the bank’s gross cash outflows at year-end.


Other types of cash outflow that increased materially over Q4 include those linked to derivatives exposures and collateral requirements (€3.9 billion) and “other contractual funding obligations”, which include revolving credit facilities (€2.7 billion).

The fourth-quarter increase to BNPP’s LCR was the largest going back to Q4 2016, when the ratio jumped from 112% to 127%. The HQLA and outflow increases were the biggest going back at least four years, to when disclosures were first made publicly available.


What is it?

The LCR is one of two liquidity ratios introduced by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in the wake of the financial crisis. It requires banks to maintain a sufficient stock of liquid assets – HQLA – to cover projected net cash outflows over a 30-day period of stress.  

Why it matters

BNP Paribas said its use of the European Central Bank’s (ECB) targeted longer-term refinancing operations over 2020, together with the influx of deposits, were most responsible for its LCR increase last year. The bank also explained that in accordance with its “sterilisation principle”, short-term funding is immediately put into HQLA, thereby preventing incoming liabilities upsetting its LCR.

As for Q4 specifically, the jump in cash liabilities can be explained in part by corporate clients drawing down state-guaranteed credit lines and putting the proceeds in their deposit accounts.

One BNP executive called the ECB’s liquidity programme a “structural” shift, one that won’t be reversed for many years, suggesting the bank may hold higher amounts of HQLA for some time to come. Customer deposits, though, may fall over the year, especially if the bank incentivises its clients to allocate their liquidity elsewhere.

BNP chief executive Jean-Laurent Bonnafé told analysts in February that the bank will try “to add value to this cash”, which would be “good for our clients, and ... also be a source of revenues for us”.

Get in touch

Like Risk Quantum? Sign up for free to our daily newsletter and check @RiskQuantum for the latest updates. 

If you have any thoughts on our latest analysis or want to suggest other ways to present and analyse the data, you can email us.

Tell me more

Deposits boosted top US banks’ short-term funds in 2020

Too much of a good thing? Banks mull over excess deposits

EU banks’ reliance on ECB loans has grown in Covid’s wake

View all bank stories

Only users who have a paid subscription or are part of a corporate subscription are able to print or copy content.

To access these options, along with all other subscription benefits, please contact or view our subscription options here:

You are currently unable to copy this content. Please contact to find out more.

You need to sign in to use this feature. If you don’t have a account, please register for a trial.

Sign in
You are currently on corporate access.

To use this feature you will need an individual account. If you have one already please sign in.

Sign in.

Alternatively you can request an individual account here