Twenty-five of the 48 participants of the European Banking Authority (EBA) stress tests would have been forced to limit their capital distributions under the adverse scenario laid out by the watchdog.

The banks triggered so-called maximum distributable amount (MDA) limits in the course of the three-year stress scenario, which automatically curb the amount of capital they can dole out in the form of dividends and Additional Tier 1 bond coupon payments.

The restrictions diverted €52 billion (