State involvement in cyber defence may be a mixed blessing

Stated threats

Jolly Roger pirate symbol on screen

Almost three decades ago, the US sociologist and historian Charles Tilly published his highly regarded essay, War making and state making as organised crime – drawing a disturbingly close parallel between the nascent states of early modern Europe and the operations of present-day gangsters and protection racketeers. The early states succeeded, he wrote, because of their ability to ‘nationalise' existing violent gangs – groups whose status changed back and forth between respected armies and

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