The AMA maze


European regulators at OpRisk Europe 2008 confirmed at least 12 banks have received Basel II advanced measurement approach (AMA) approval since January: Credit Suisse and UBS in Switzerland; Lloyds TSB, Citi, Barclays and Halifax Bank of Scotland in the UK; and six German banks, including Deutsche Bank and Commerzbank. Also, 20 banks in Germany have been approved for the standardised approach.

Looking beyond AMA approval, the Financial Services Authority's head of op risk policy, Andrew Sheen

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Investment banks: the future of risk control

This survey report explores the current state of risk controls in investment banks, the challenges of effective engagement across the three lines of defence, and the opportunity to develop a more dynamic approach to first-line risk control

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