Can quants defuse the pension time bomb?

Alex Lipton argues new quantitative methods are needed to solve the looming pension crisis

Time for a rethink: modern portfolio theory has clearly outlived its usefulness

Alexander Lipton is a Connection Science Fellow at MIT and an Adjunct Professor of Mathematics at NYU. He is also chief investment officer of start-up robo-adviser, Investimizer.

Otto von Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, was a man of many achievements, some of them positive, some negative; however, his greatest contribution to humanity was the invention of the modern concept of retirement.1 Universal pension, proposed by Bismarck, was a radical departure from the old ways, when people continued to

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