Economic capital is a measure of the amount of equity capital an enterprise needs to support a risk. More specifically, it is the amount of equity capital necessary to cover losses arising from that risk to some confidence level.1 For example, many of the large international banks define economic capital as the amount of equity capital needed to cover losses 99.97% of the time.
In contrast with an accounting view, where capital could be viewed on the right-hand side of the balance sheet, economic capital is a 'left-hand-side-of-the-balance-sheet' concept: the amount of capital needed is determined by the riskiness of the company's assets (including the firm's business units and activities).
While equity capital is the source of the 'needed' capital as defined by economic capital, the amount of equity capital required can be reduced by insurance and guarantees or by transferring risk to a third party.
Charles Smithson is a partner at Rutter Associates. He would like to thank Neil Pearson for his help on this article. Email: [email protected]
1. Robert Merton and Andre Perold described risk capital as providing a kind of asset insurance against the possibility of lower-than-expected operating results.
2. The 2006 IFRI-CRO Forum survey into the economic capital practices of 17 banking institutions and 16 insurers in Europe, North America, Australia and Singapore indicated that insurance companies are more likely than banks to incorporate the different risk types into a single economic capital model.
3. The 2005 survey conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers and The Economist Intelligence Unit found that 33% of the 200 financial institutions surveyed do not incorporate the correlation between risk types. The 2006 IFRI-CRO Forum survey suggested that a similar, albeit smaller, percentage of respondents were not incorporating correlation between risk types: six of the 33 participants reported that they use a simple summation approach. Of the 27 that attempted to incorporate inter-risk correlation, 23 characterised their approach to inter-risk diversification as top-down.
4. Consequently, the sum of stand-alone capital for the enterprise's individual business units or portfolios or transactions will be greater than the total economic capital for the enterprise.
5. At least in the case of economic capital for credit risk, the survey evidence indicates that firms are moving from standard-deviation-based to shortfall-based risk contributions. Between the 2002 and 2004 Rutter Associates' surveys of credit portfolio management practices, the use of standard-deviation-based risk contributions declined (from 50% to 38%), with the use of shortfall-based risk contributions increasing (from 13% to 33%).
6. Pearson N, 2002, pages 161-162.
Christian C, 2006
Copula-based top-down approaches in financial risk aggregation
Working Paper 32, the University of Applied Sciences of bfi Vienna
IFRI Foundation and Chief Risk Officer Forum (CRO Forum), 2006
Insights from the joint IFRI/CRO forum survey on economic capital practice and applications
Merton R and A Perold, 1993
Theory of risk capital in financial firms
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance
Pearson N, 2002
Risk budgeting: portfolio problem solving using value at risk
Effective capital management: economic capital as an industry standard?
Rutter Associates, 2004
Rutter Associates survey of credit portfolio management practices
Sponsored by International Association of Credit Portfolio Managers, International Swaps and Derivatives Association and Risk Management Association
HSBC Financial Products Institute 2004-2005 survey of risk measurement & management practices of institutional investors
Stein R, 2007
Using economic capital as a tool
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