Up to now, liberalisation of the German gas market has been widely viewed as a failure. The country has paid lip service to the idea since 1998, but has lagged behind other parts of Europe with implementation. Almost 10 years later, liberalisation has made very little difference to Germany's market structure. A complex three-tier market remains, consisting of five importing companies: E.ON Ruhrgas (which has a share of over 60% of gas imports), RWE, VNG, Wingas and BEB; 22 regional transmission
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