Insurance Risk/Technical paper

Options for collateral options

When collateral can be posted in multiple currencies, pricing even the simplest derivatives involves optionality, which is often tackled numerically. But by conditioning on a risk factor to make variables independent, this can be simplified. Alexandre…

Systematic risk factors redefined

Credit risk factor models tend to have a narrow focus on the Gaussian case, use copula functions that don’t work well with the martingale methods used in pricing, and can introduce arbitrage. Dariusz Gatarek and Juliusz Jablecki show how an increasing…

Hedge backtesting for model validation

Derivatives pricing and expected exposure models must be backtested as a basic regulatory requirement. But what does this mean exactly, and how can it be used to reserve against model risk? Lee Jackson introduces a general backtesting framework for…

Exposure under systemic impact

Wrong-way risk (WWR) behaves differently for exposures to systemically important counterparties because their default has the potential to move financial markets before the close-out. Michael Pykhtin and Alexander Sokol show how the traditional exposure…

Wrong-way risk, credit and funding

The risk of exposure and counterparty default probability both increasing – so-called wrong-way risk – is usually understood in terms of the correlation between the two variables. But this approach is focused more on the centre of the distribution, and…