US funds were more likely to suffer from fraud. The report's authors, Corentin Christory, Stephane Daul and Jean-Rene Giraud, suggest this could be because more US funds keep the responsibility for calculating net asset value in-house rather than outsourcing it to an independent administrator. Small funds are also more likely to suffer from fraud.
Unsurprisingly, operational problems are more likely to affect funds investing in complex financial instruments, which include more opportunities for error.
Diversifying can reduce the expected loss due to fraud, but can do less to reduce the risk of operational error, the authors suggest.