Regulatory costs break risk neutrality


CLICK HERE TO VIEW THE PDF Increased regulation and market changes since 2007 have altered the perceived costs of many financial products. Here we prove that these changes are not just perception: they have had a fundamental effect on pricing theory. That is, we prove a market-wide risk-neutral measure that is common to all participants does not exist. This proof is based on our theorem 2, which states that if different market participants receive different divid