Bottom of the class: Eiopa stress-test underperformers compared

How firms and regulators are responding to pressures highlighted by November survey

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Tests are designed to separate the best from the rest and identify those falling behind. The principle is the same in the offices of the European insurance regulator as it is in the classroom: those who score poorly have to improve - or face a trip to the headmaster's office.

This was the attitude expressed by Gabriel Bernardino, chair of the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (Eiopa) following the publication of its European-wide stress tests on November 30 2014. The results